** ****Kinetic Energy**

INTRODUCTION

Some of the most basic concepts of modern physics include the following relationships.

1. Force

A force, “F”, is how hard we push on something. And the effect of a force is to change the momentum of an object which is its mass, “m”, multiplied by its velocity, “v”. This is Newton’s Second Law of Motion expressed mathematically as

where we have assumed that the mass does
not change and “a” is the acceleration. We quantify our measurement of forces
by using the units of Newtons which is (kg m/s^{2}).

2. Energy

Energy is the ability of something to influence or cause a change in something else. Objects with more energy cause, or can cause, greater changes. In more concrete terms, we say that energy, “E”, is related to an applied force, “F” and a distance, “s” over which that force is applied. This is expressed as

where the integral follows the path of the force. Or we can differentiate and write this same equation as

and the units of energy are in Joules which
is (Newton-meters or kg m^{2}/s^{2})

KINETIC ENERGY

For the specific case of an object which is initially at rest but which at time, t=0, has a constant applied force, F, we can write

And we can now calculate the resultant energy

VOLTS

An electrically charged particle creates an electric field around itself. This field exerts forces on other nearby electrically charged particles in proportion to the amount of charge. Electrons have a negative charge which repels other electrons but which attracts positively charged protons. Basically unlike charges attract and like charges repel.

A voltage is the potential energy of an electrical charge
which has been forced to move some distance against an electrical field. At
some point we stop pushing and the restrain the electron. When the restraints
are released this potential energy will be converted back into kinetic energy
as if the original force was applied in the opposite direction. The units of
voltage are thus energy/coulomb or Newton-meters/coulomb or kg m^{2} /
(s^{2} coulomb)